Injuries to the foot, knee injury leg, arm or thighs cause ligament and tendon disorders. A tendon consists of parallel fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles and bones. If a tendon tears so that that muscle no longer attaches itself to the bone, it can no longer fulfill its tasks. There are also scarring and adhesions on the severed Achilles tendon injury, which is no longer properly supplied with blood.
The causes of ligament and tendon injuries are over or under loading of a joint, such as contusions, twists, and dislocation. They cause damage to the capsular ligaments, cartilage, and bone. Sinews rarely tear spontaneously when there is a pathological background, such as rheumatic diseases.
Ligament and Achilles Tendon Injury cause the following problem:
- Pain with every movement of the injured joint
- Blood and joint effusions
- Limited load and function of the affected joint.
Achilles tendon injury : surgery or bandages against pain and immobility
The Achilles tendon connects the muscles of the lower leg with the heel bone. It is the strongest tendon of the human body. Therefore, it tears usually only in case of damage by over and incorrect loading because their blood supply is then impaired and gradually leads to the degeneration of the tissue. These changes are most pronounced 2 to 6 centimeters above the neckline, at the so-called “Achilles tendon waist” where the tendon is the least well groomed.
Here the crack is most likely
If the tendon ruptures happen with a loud whip-like sound in a sudden tension of the calf muscles, often in the context of athletic or other intense physical activity. After that, those affected, who are usually between 30 and 40 years old, can only go on tiptoe. And that too only very limited.
Intake of an antibiotic from the group of gyrate inhibitors affects the strength of the tendon tissue. This is especially the case in order people talking cortisone or other medications that weaken the immune system. The Achilles tendon injury can also be severed by sharp-edged objects, which also affect vessels and nerves and the risk of inflammation is high.
Only 2% of sports injuries are Achilles tendon tears. Since the end of the twentieth century, the cases are increasing, probably because there are new sports and more and more people are overweight.
Tear of the outer ligament of the ankle
The outer ligament of the ankle can tear when kinking, which often occurs in running sports. If the ankle can then open laterally, this is an indication of the outer band tear for the doctor.
He expresses himself with pain and possibly with a bruise in the region. What now helps is to lift up the injured foot, bandage it and put on cool packs. Then he should be rested with an orthotic. Sometimes an operation is necessary.
So the doctor makes the diagnosis
The Achilles tendon rupture causes a gap a few centimeters above the neck of the Achilles tendon on the heel bone, which can be palpated. Thereafter, the region is swollen and bloodshot.
When the tendon is completely severed, the so-called “Thompson test” is positive. For this test, the victim must lie on his stomach, so that the feet hang over the edge of the examination such. Then the doctor compresses the calf muscle from both sides. Normally, the ankle then moves towards the sole of the foot, but in case of an Achilles tendon rupture, the so-called plantar flexion remains.
Diagnosis also includes regional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to clearly identify the tear.
When is an operation necessary?
Whether treated with or without surgery, the doctor decides on the age, the risk factors and the athletic activity of the affected person.
If an Achilles tendon tear is not treated, scar tissue forms after 2 to 4 months, which is weak and can no support normal ankle movements. The consequences: the calf muscles back, the affected person has less strength in the foot and limping.
The Achilles tendon rupture can be treated conservatively: to do so, a firm bandage keeps the foot steady for about 2 weeks in equinus position. With a special boot, heel elevation is gradually lowered. Overall, this treatment takes about 6 to 8 weeks. Treatment without surgery is possible if the distance between the two torn ends is less than 10 mm.
If the distance is greater, the two ends can be sewn together surgically. Thereafter, an orthotic for immobilization of the joint is applied for 6 weeks. This is followed by a rehabilitation program. However, the Achilles tendon never regains its full load capacity, even though the treatment was optimal.